Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1878

1. Detailed statement of all moneys received for patents, for
copies of records or drawings, or from any other source whatever.

Cash received $581,927.00
Cash refunded 1,300.00
Net cash 589,627.00
Certificates of deposit 66,113.00
Total cash and certificates 646,740.00

Cash received 46,905.37
Cash refunded 1,319.35
Net cash 45,586.02
Certificates of deposit 2,579.05
Total cash and certificates 48,165.07

Recording assignments:

Cash received 20,359.55
Cash refund 639.00
Net cash 19,720.55
Certificates of deposit 737.05
Total cash and certificates 20,457.60

For subscriptions to Official Gazette:

Cash received 6,499.28
Cash refunded 54.80
Net cash 6,444.48
Certificates of deposit 328.40
Total cash and certificates 6,772.88

Registration of labels:

Cash received 4,002.00
Cash refunded 900.00
Net cash 3,042.00
Certificates of deposit 198.00
Total cash and certificates 3,240.00


Cash received 659,693.20
Cash refunded 4,273.15
Net Cash 655,420.05
Certificates of deposit 69,955.50
Total cash and certificates 725,375.55


Amount expended under the several appropriations, from
January 1, 1878, to January 1, 1879

Salaries $380,631.23
Gazette 35,041.63
Contingent expenses 78,065.04
Copies of drawings 50,801.29
Tracings 8,105.29
Photolithographing 50,438.55
Total 593,082.89

Receipts over expenditures

Total receipts 725,375.55
Total expenditures 593,082.89

II. Detailed statement of all expenditures for contingent and
miscellaneous expenses

Balance of appropriation brought forward $19,377.65
Jan 5 J.W. Boteler & Bro., sundries $27.00
7 H.C. Geisburg, copies, etc. 1.80
7 Wm. Brakhagen, file straps 42.00
8 I.H. Schneider, hardware 87.88
8 Germond Crandell, books 52.50
10 W.S. Mitchell, carpets, etc. 298.12
11 John A. Darling, books 30.00
12 E.H. King, furniture 228.12
14 Chas. J. Gooch, paper fasteners 16.50
14 Robert Beall, books 10.40
Feb 5 E.H. Woodruff, file boxes 68.60
Jan 14 Geo. R. Gray, subscription to Union 3.00
15 Geo. W. Cole, services 1.50
18 Henry F. Reh, boxes 7.50
18 Aug. Burgdorf, services 23.00
18 Aug. Burgdorf, repairing furniture 25.00
18 Chas. Mason, copies 3.25
21 Willett & Libbey, lumber 67.84
24 Wm. H. Dempsey, paper 56.25
Feb 25 Henry W. Saul, baskets 8.00
Jan 26 E.H. King, furniture 80.00
25 Chas. J. Gooch, fasteners 16.50
31 Ben Moten, paste 19.00
Feb 2 W.H.H. Nally, marking books 46.20
4 Robert Boyd, hardware 30.52
4 W.H. & O.H. Morrison, digest 13.00
4 Rolley Jefferson, carting .75
5 E.J. Hayward, washing 31.00
6 E.H. King, furniture 285.00
Jan -- Pay roll services 3,478.40
________ 5,058.91
Balance of appropriation, January 31 14,278.74

Feb 4 Solomons & Chapman, sundries 15.60
7 W.W. Burdette & Co., towels, etc. 27.44
7 Chas. Fisher, M. instruments 38.25
8 American Journal of Microscopy,
subscription 2.50
9 W.F. Lutz, stamp 9.00
9 Gustav E. Stechrt, book 1.00
11 J.H. Whittaker, services 50.00
11 D. Lathrop & Co., book 1.00
13 John H. Schultz, R.R. Journal 10.00
14 Macmillon & Co., subscription 5.00
15 A.H. Stockman, Picturesque World 2.00
15 Wm. Ballantyne, stationery 17.20
19 Earl Bill, copies 2.70
21 E.H. King, furniture 376.50
26 Luther Tucker & Son, subscription 3.00
28 P.W. Page, services 50.00
28 J.H. Whittaker, services 50.00
28 Ben Moten, paste 16.50
Mar 1 Robert Beall, books 10.00
1 Wm. H. Veerhoff, shades, etc. 52.00
1 Alexander & Son, paper hanging 13.10
Feb 28 Pay Roll, services 3,180.60
________ 3,937.98
Balance of appropriation February 28 10,340.76

Mar 2 E.J. Hayward, washing 27.42
6 B. Westermann, books, etc. 151.34
6 R. Beall, books, etc. 11.50
7 E.M. Whittaker & Sons, books, etc. 20.20
7 Solomons & Chapman, eyelet machine 27.50
7 John C. Parker, subscription 24.00
8 E.L. Bugbee, telegrams 4.32
11 Germond Crandell, books 48.75
12 E.H. King, furniture 123.00
14 National Republican, subscription 8.00
15 Norris Peters, drawing paper 30.00
20 E.W. Woodruff, file holders 65.00
21 W.B. Moses, furniture 616.69
25 H.W. Saul, basket 2.00
25 Germond Crandell, books 25.50
27 Wm. Brakhagen, repairing mail bag 2.50
27 Leonard Whitney, telegrams 1.25
27 B.F. Stevens, British patents 426.77
28 Daniel Kolb, chemicals, etc. 29.35
30 I.P. Libbey, repairing clocks 50.00
Apr 1 P.W. Page, services 50.00
1 Ben Moten, paste 21.50
2 E.J. Hayward, washing 26.00
2 Great Falls Ice Company, ice 270.00
2 H.F. Reh, boxes 21.00
3 Chas. R. Dodge, subscription 1.00
2 Willett & Libbey, lumber 55.97
3 Wm. Yorke AtLee, stamps 32.25
Mar 30 Pay roll, services 3,481.87
________ 5,804.08
By additional appropriation 26,600.00
Balance of appropriation March 31 31,236.68

Apr 3 Geo. Ryneal, jr., glass, etc. 77.42
3 H.W. Hamilton, stove pipe, etc. 70.10
6 James Kelcher, livery 25.00
8 B. Westermann, books, etc. 158.12
8 D. Oliphant, copies 1.50
9 Henry F. Reh, boxes 10.00
11 F.W. Christern, books 3.24
11 Robert Boyd, hardware 48.90
12 L.H. Schneider, hardware 44.62
13 Wash B. Williams, shades, etc. 15.65
15 John C. Fry, Ex. catalogues 23.00
18 Adams Express Co., transportation 1.25
18 J.B. Lippincott & Co., subscription 4.00
22 James J. De Barry, C "Dater" 9.00
26 Henry Kimmel, castings, etc. 2.15
26 Wm. F. Lutz, stamps, etc. 3.25
27 H. Baumgarten & Bro., repairing stamp 2.75
27 Western Union Tel. Co., telegrams 1.53
30 Pay roll services 6,446.45
30 P.W. Pages, services 50.00
30 Jas. A.K. Moore, paste 30.50
May 1 Robert Beall, books 5.00
1 Robert Beall, books 36.20
1 J.H. Whittaker, services 50.00
2 Wm. Ballantyne & Son, drawing paper 21.50
2 C.C. Wilson, stamps etc. 112.90
3 F. Etheridge, bag holder 5.00
_________ 7,182.03
Balance of appropriation May 1 24,054.65

7 E.J. Hayward, washing 32.49
8 Wm. Woods & Co., subscription 2.85
4 A.L. Luyster, book 13.50
14 E.O. Chapman, books 3.65
15 J.H. Williams, services 39.00
18 N.A. Poole & Co, window cleaners 4.00
18 Harper Bros., Bazar 3.20
27 H.I. Hart, killing insects 8.00
23 Norris Peters, drawing paper 75.00
29 Wm. Yorke AtLee, stamps 15.40
29 John C. Hogan, awnings 437.65
31 M.E. Mann, encyclopedia 5.00
31 James H. Williams, services 42.00
31 James Lingenfelter, services 35.00
31 T.F. Wilson, services 22.00
31 Germond Crandell, books 23.75
June 1 Geo. Ryneal, oil .90
1 Robert Boyd, hardware 33.80
1 James A.K. Moore, paste 16.25
3 Journal of Chemistry, subscription 3.00
3 Dana & Silliman, subscription 6.12
3 Chas. J. Gooch, paper fasteners 5.10
4 Robert Beall, books 32.50
6 E.J. Hayward, washing 26.33
May 31 Pay roll, services 8,126.19
_________ 9,051.28

Balance of appropriations, May 31 15,003.37

June 8 Rose Belford Pub. Co., subscription 4.00
8 E.H. King, case 40.00
8 W.T. Lutz, ribbon 4.00
15 Levi Curry, boxes 6.00
15 Houghton, Osgood & Co. subscription 2.50
15 Theo. F. Wilson, services 25.00
15 James H. Williams, services 39.00
15 James Lingenfelter, services 24.00
15 Peter Ailer, services 24.00
29 James H. Williams, services 36.00
July 3 Great Falls Ice Company, ice 277.20
1 I.P. Libbey, care of clocks 50.00
2 James Keleher, horse hire 6.00
June 30 Pay roll, services 14,387.32
_________ 14,933.52

Bills of Lathrop & Co., $1, Stockman,
$2, and Brown $3 = $6, (previously
charged, but not paid) 6.00


Apr 30 Anna Sterling, services 59.30
Mar 31 Anna Sterling, services 15.80
Apr 3 Western Union Tel. Co., telegrams .50
June -- Western Union Tel. Co., telegrams .25
_________ 75.85
Amount of appropriation, July 1, 1878 50,000.00

July 1 E.W. Woodruff, file holders 65.00
3 Robert Boyd, hardware 36.56
3 C.C. Wilson, stamps, etc. 135.05
3 Aug. Burgdorf, furniture 51.00
3 Western Union Tel. Co., telegrams 1.80
8 E.J. Hayward, washing 32.64
8 J.S. Topham, harnesses 40.00
9 Germond Crandell, books 25.00
9 A. Hoen & Co., printing 16.80
10 F. Seypoldt, subscription 10.00
10 W.W. Burdette & Co., towels, etc. 48.12
10 Van Nostrand, magazine 5.00
10 E.M. Willis, office furniture 135.00
10 Geo. C. Maynard, telephones 241.75
10 Library Journal, subscription 6.00
11 Wm. F. Lutz, stamps 28.60
12 Henry Saul, baskets 6.00
12 Geo. Stevens, boxes 18.00
12 E.H. King, office furniture 530.58
13 A.E. Denis, gas fitting 3.00
15 James H. Williams, services 39.00
15 J.A.K. Moore, paste 25.25
15 Otto De Moll, services 29.25
15 James Lingenfelter, services 32.50
15 B. Westermann, books 98.10
15 Journal of Commerce Co., subscription 1.00
16 S.D. Oliphant, copies, etc. 10.90
18 Lorenzo Rice, cleaning carpets 2.24
18 J.W. Boteler & Bro., crockery 94.45
20 Francis Miller, brushes, oil etc. 16.40
20 Chas. Fisher, glasses 5.50
20 Thos. Ferry, cleaning carpets 44.94
22 H.L. Pelouze & Son, type 50.15
25 E.H. King, model cases 53.50
27 E. W. Woodruff, file holders 75.80
27 Aug. Burgdorf, furniture 298.50
27 A.H. Stockman, encyclopedia 6.50
27 Levi Curry, case 140.00
25 C.C. Wilson, stamps, etc. 58.70
31 James H. Williams, services 42.00
31 Germond Crandell, books 87.25
31 A.S. Adams, services 28.00
31 Richard Gallaher, services 75.80
31 Lucy B. Bailey, services 9.00
31 Susan Shacklett, services 52.00
31 R.H.E. Siebert, locks 100.00
31 Pay roll, (clerical) services 1,628.48
31 T.F. Wilson, services 28.00
31 Pay roll (laborers) services 2,529.90
31 H.N. Rothery, services 42.00
Aug 1 E. Morrison, blanks 109.35
July 31 Wilmer & Rogers New Co., Review 13.20
_________ 7,263.65
Balance of appropriation July 31 42,736.35

Aug 1 W.H. Veerhoff, shades 46.00
1 James Lingenfelter, repairs 17.50
2 James A.K. Moore, paste 27.00
3 W.H. Boyd, Directory 4.00
7 H.N. Rothery, repairing cases 10.00
7 E.M. Whittaker & Son, book holders 7.00
8 Crane & Co., parchment 197.47
8 Atlantic & Pacific Telegraph Co.
telegrams .64
8 E.J. Hayward, washing 17.57
9 G.N. Rider, books 16.80
14 C.C. Maynard, telephone 24.50
14 E. Morrison, blanks 370.00
15 James H. Williams, services 39.00
15 Wm. H. Newton, services 39.00
15 H.M. Robinson, services 20.00
15 Wm. Ballantyne & Son, paper 15.00
16 Alfred Warwick, labor 26.00
16 Levi Curry, repairing cases 28.75
17 E.H. King, furniture 300.80
17 L.H. Schneider, hardware 39.25
17 James Lingenfelter, services 32.50
19 Little, Brown & Co., reports 36.50
20 Solomons & Chapman, sponge rubber 7.50
20 Solomons & Chapman, arm rests 4.50
26 W.B. Moses, matting, etc. 707.71
28 John E. Gorman, file boxes 70.00
30 Alfred Warwick, repairing furniture 16.00
30 James Lingenfelter, repairing
furniture 35.00
31 Jos. Rakeman, painting, etc. 185.50
31 G.D. Lawson, services 8.00
31 James H. Williams, services 42.00
31 R.J. Gallaher, services 75.00
31 A.E. Dennis, bronzing, etc. 16.00
31 W.H. Veerhoff, shades 10.00
Sept 2 Robert Boyd, hardware 31.39
Aug 31 Clerical pay roll, services 1,257.60
31 Laborers' pay roll, services 3,776.10
_________ 6,528.58
Balance of appropriation, August 31 36,207.77

Sept 3 James A.K. Moore, paste 30.50
4 W.H. Ross, sawdust 16.50
4 Willett & Libbey, lumber 151.63
6 J.B. Lippincott, book 5.86
7 G.D. Lawson, services 24.00
7 C.C. Wilson, dies, etc. 131.15
9 E.J. Hayward, washing 16.20
10 Western Union Tel. Co., telegrams 2.62
11 B.F. Stevens, spec's, sub's, etc. 487.16
14 J.H. Williams, services 46.00
13 Wm. Minster, label plates 15.00
14 James Lingenfelter, services 30.00
14 J.G. Weaver, file case 25.00
14 G.D. Lawson, services 24.00
14 E.H. King, furniture 291.40
16 Little, Brown & Co., book 6.00
18 Norris Peters, photolithographs 120.00
19 Norris Peters, photolithographs 158.00
19 B.F. Stevens, (A) periodicals, etc } 100.54
19 B.F. Stevens, (B) periodicals, etc }
20 Aug. Burgdorf, portfolios, etc. 122.50
20 A.E. Denis, bronzing, etc. 22.00
23 A.E. Denis, services 16.00
23 Robert Boyd, hardware 24.88
27 John C. Parker, pens 5.00
28 James H. Williams, services 39.00
28 G.D. Lawson, services 52.00
28 Levi Curry, drawers, etc. 96.25
30 I.P. Libbey, repairing clocks 50.00
30 Wm. Wood & Co., subscriptions 1.50
30 W. White, freight 4.09
30 Germond Crandell, books 48.70
30 James Lingenfelter, services 32.50
30 E.H. King, repairing furniture 144.00
30 R.J. Gallaher, services 73.40
30 C.C. Wilson, dies and stamps 189.80
30 W.D. Webb, services 60.00
Oct 1 James Keleher, carriage hire 3.00
1 Geo. C. Maynard, repairing telephone 15.00
1 J.A.K. Moore, paste 28.00
1 Geo. W. Knox, freight 2.06
1 D. Ballauf, furniture 14.00
2 H. Baumgarten & Co., repairing stamp 2.75
Sept 30 R. Hoe & Co., printing press 217.60
Oct 2 Wm. Yorke AtLee, stamps 12.50
2 Francis Miller, printers' stock 5.60
1 Francis Miller, printers' stock, etc. 39.75
1 Daniel Kolb, drugs 19.45
2 Great Falls Ice Company, ice 202.92
2 W.H. Veerhoff, curtains 11.00
Sept 30 Pay roll (clerical) services 1,187.21
30 Pay roll, (laborers) services 2,663.80
_________ 7,087.21
Balance of appropriation, September 30 29,120.56

Nov 1 E.W. Woodruff, file holders 65.00
2 C.C. Wilson, dies and stamps 38.40
3 Jas. A.K. Moore, paste 24.50
5 Geo. Ryneal, jr., printers' stock 11.16
5 Levi Curry, floor in printers' room 65.00
6 Henry F. Reh, boxes 30.00
6 Wm. Brakhagen, mail bag 1.25
8 William Cushing, N.A. Review 5.00
7 Thos. G. Newman & Son, subscription 10.00
9 McGee & Williams, cleaning carpets 33.90
13 Tubman, paper hanging 5.25
14 E.H. King, case 25.00
15 E.F. Brooks, gas burner 9.00
15 Pay roll (laborers discharged)
services 870.82
15 Pay roll (clerical discharge,)
services 584.66
15 James H. Williams, services 39.00
15 James Lingenfelter, services 32.50
18 W.B. Williams, cloth, etc. 24.90
20 H. Baumgarten & Bro, dating stamp 20.00
23 James S. Oden, services 55.50
23 H.F. Reh, boxes 2.50
25 Industrial Pub. Co., subscription 1.00
27 James Lingenfelter, services 32.50
27 McGee & Willard, cleaning carpets 6.45
29 Levi Curry, floor in printers' room 48.00
30 James H. Williams, services 39.00
30 Richard J. Gallaher, services 73.40
30 J.H. Adrians, jr., services 73.40
30 L.H. Flynn, file wrappers 18.00
30 Daniel Williams, services 22.50
30 E.D. Webb, services 65.00
30 Pay roll services 1,002.00
_________ 3,293.75
Balance of appropriation November 30 20,224.04

Dec 2 Fannie Frere, services 24.45
2 J.A.K. Moore, paste 25.50
3 Robert Boyd, hardware 33.20
3 C.C. Wilson, stamps 31.95
4 B.F. Stevens, books, etc. 51.89
6 Wm. Ballantyne & Sons, books etc. 6.85
6 E.J. Hayward, washing 15.63
9 James Talty, repairing 3.50
9 R.G. Hutchinson, strap files 159.95
13 Aug. Burgdorf, cases 35.00
14 James Lingenfelter, services 30.00
14 James H. Williams, services 36.00
20 Willett & Libbey, lumber 134.92
23 Susan Bird, paste 22.50
23 James Lingenfelter, services 35.00
23 Richard J. Gallaher, services 75.80
24 E.D. Webb, services 47.50
26 Tenney & Reese, stamp 8.00
26 A.H. Stockman, encyclopedia 6.00
27 Boyd's Directory Co., directory 25.00
27 E.W. Woodruff, file holders 130.00
28 James H. Williams, services 42.00
30 I.P. Libbey, repairing clocks 50.00
30 Crane & Co., parchment 96.65
30 E.H. King, furniture 113.50
31 Wash. B. Williams, furniture, etc. 29.93
31 E.D. Webb, services 17.50
31 L.H. Flynn, file wrappers 63.81
31 Pay roll, services 1,014.00
5 D.W. Lapham, pen 3.00
_________ 2,359.43
Balance of appropriation December 31, 1878 17,864.61

III. Summary of the business of the Office

Applications for patents, including designs 20,260
Applications for reissue of patents 638
Patents issued, including designs 12,935
Patents reissued 509
Patents extended [no entry]
Caveats filed 2,755
Patents expired during the year, exclusive of designs 2,617
Patents withheld for non-payment of final fee 832
Applications for registration of trade marks 1,577
Trade marks registered 1,455
Applications for registration of labels 700
Labels registered 492

IV. Number of patents issued to the several States and
Territories, with the ratio of population to each patent granted;
also, the number of patents issued to subjects or citizens of
foreign governments

States and Territories Patents One to
and every

Alabama 39 25,563
Arizona Territory 2 4,829
Arkansas 45 10,766
California 320 1,750
Colorado 35 1,138
Connecticut 529 1,015
Dakota Territory 5 2,833
Delaware 39 3,209
District of Columbia 146 968
Florida 3 65,682
Georgia 105 1,127
Idaho Territory 2 7,499
Illinois 998 2,547
Indiana 345 4,842
Iowa 325 3,676
Kansas 63 5,784
Kentucky 145 9,110
Louisiana 76 9,564
Maine 140 4,477
Maryland 183 4,267
Massachusetts 1,199 1,216
Michigan 390 3,036
Minnesota 129 3,408
Mississippi 38 21,787
Missouri 315 5,499
Montana Territory 3 3,865
Nebraska 50 2,459
Nevada 36 1,180
New Hampshire 92 3,459
New Jersey 490 1,870
New Mexico Territory 3 30,624
New York 2,599 1,685
North Carolina 53 20,214
Ohio 1,070 2,490
Oregon 35 2,568
Pennsylvania 1,296 2,718
Rhode Island 190 1,143
South Carolina 28 25,200
Tennessee 98 12,842
Texas 130 6,219
Utah Territory 7 12,392
Vermont 109 3,032
Virginia 113 10,848
Washington Territory 13 1,842
West Virginia 58 7,620
Wisconsin 251 4,218
Wyoming Territory 8 1,138
United States Army 4 --
United States Navy 1 --

Total 12,354 ---

Of the patents, including designs, there were granted to the
Citizens of the United States 12,354

Subjects of Great Britain, including Canada 336
Subjects of France 60
Subjects of Germany 98
Subjects of other foreign governments 87
Total 12,935

V. Work of the Trade Mark Division

Cases for Action
Cases on hand at the beginning of year 52
Trade marks received during the year 1,604
Labels received during the year 711
Amended cases 1,779
Total cases for action 4,146

Cases Acted Upon

Whole number of trade marks and labels
passed to issue during the year 1,990
Whole number of actions other than issues
during the year 2,105
Total actions on applications during the year 4,095
New cases on hand 8
Old cases on hand 43
Answers to miscellaneous letters of inquiry 39
Briefs in appeal cases 39
Interferences declared 18
Trade marks registered 12

Total actions during the year 4,328

This exhibit shows an increase over the preceding year, both in the number of applications received for action and in the number of actions made. In 1877 there were 1,377 trade mark applications and 627 label applications filed in the Office, the fees deposited therewith amounting to $38,187. There were 833 more applications received for action during the year just closed than during the previous year, 227 of which were new and 556 old or amended cases; and there were 834 more actions made on applications during the last year than during the preceding year.

The receipts of this division for the year 1878 are as follows:

Amount received from 1,567 trade mark
applications, upon which full fees have
been paid $39,175
Amount derived from 37 trade mark
applications, upon each of which first
fees have been paid 370
Total trade mark fees 39,545
Amount derived from 711 label applications 4,266
Total receipts for the year 43,811

This table shows an increase of $5,624 over the receipts for the year 1877.

It is estimated that $10,399 will cover the expenditures incurred in carrying on the work of the division for the past year, as shown by the following table:

Salary of Examiner                                   2,400
Salary of Second Assistant Examiner 1,600
Salary of first class clerk 1,200
Salary of clerk of division 900
Salary of additional clerk 480
For printing trade mark specifications (estimated) 2,619
For salaries of clerical help in the preparation of
trade mark certificates etc., (estimated) 1,200
Total 10,399

Recent changes have reduced the force of the division. It
now consists of --

One Examiner (annual salary) 2,400
One Second Assistant Examiner (annual salary) 1,600
One clerk (annual salary) 900
One additional clerk (annual salary) 600
Total 5,500

In 1878 there were issued 1,455 trade mark certificates and 492 label certificates, making a total issue of 1,947 certificates.

VI. Foreign Patents in possession of the Office

Copies of patents issued by other governments have been received in exchange for those of the United States, as follows:

English Patents

By an arrangement made about a year ago, copies of English patents are received from the Great Seal Patent Office through the Government mail, by the courtesy of the State Department, immediately upon publication. The office is now in possession of complete sets of the old law series, 1617-1852, No. 1 to 14,359, text and plates, plates on muslin, bound separately, 816 volumes; series of 1852, 1852-1875, same form, 1,750 volumes; and series 1876, 1876 to date, text and plates bound together, 8vo., 120 volumes; a total of 2,676 volumes.

Indexes to the above, alphabetical, chronological, and subject matter, to the year 1876, have been received, and also complete sets of abridgements to the year 1866.

German Patents

Complete sets from July 1, 1877, to date, text and plates, 30 volumes.

French Patents

First series, 1781-1844, comprising 12,543 specifications, 93 volumes text, 46 volumes plates. Second series, 1844-1863, comprising about 6,500 specifications, 87 volumes text, 44 volumes plates. Third series, 1871-1875, including specifications from No. 91,631 to 106,000, 14 volumes text, 14 volumes plates. These are all that have been printed. The patents for the years 1864 to 1870, inclusive, numbered 60,201 to 91,630, have not been published by the French Government.

Austrian Patents

Series, 1821-1847, 6 volumes, 3 volumes plates

Belgian Patents

Series, 1854-1877, 24 volumes text, 6 volumes plates

Canadian Patents

1854-1855, 2 volumes.

Italian, Swedish, and Norwegian patents, imperfect sets, as far as published. The same of patents issued by New Zealand and Victoria.

VII. Unprinted Specifications

There were 10,061 patents issued from 1790 to 1836, inclusive. The records of nearly all of these were destroyed by the fire of 1836. Two thousand eight hundred and forty-five were restored, having been returned to the Office by the patentees to be again recorded.

From 1836 to 1866, inclusive, 56,163 patents were issued, including reissues and designs. The printing of patents dates from November 20, 1866. About 1,000 of the patents issued in 1866 were printed. There thus remain about 58,000 recorded patents unprinted. All the original drawings accompanying these patents have been reproduced by the photolithographic process.

It is difficult to estimate exactly the cost of printing these patents; but, on the basis of the present cost of printing specifications, the old specifications being assumed to be of the same average length as those now printed, it is estimated that the cost of printing the 58,000 specifications referred to will amount to $230,000. This estimate is based on the average cost per page at present rates of printing one hundred specifications.

The completion during the past year of the reproduction of all the old drawings, as above mentioned, has considerably reduced the demand for manuscript copies of their accompanying specifications. Still the receipts of the Office from this one source continue to be about $5,000 per year.

It now requires, on an average, the constant employment of eight copyists to make and compare the copies daily ordered of these specifications. Were these printed the salaries of six copyists and two comparers, amounting to the annual sum of $7,400, would be saved to the Office.

Furthermore, a much greater amount would be received annually from the sales of the printed copies at the present rate of selling specifications. The demand for such printed specifications, not only for single copies, but from persons and libraries desirous of completing their sets of patents generally, or in particular lines of invention, would be extensive. Thus the saving to the Office and the receipts from sales would in a number of years equal the entire outlay for printing. But the cost or saving of money in this matter is of small consequence compared with the advantage to be afforded this Office and the public, in the examination of applications for patents, and the dissemination of knowledge of the state of the art in every class of inventions. Confined now to single manuscript copies of 58,000 patents, the labor of their examination, constantly necessary by this Office, is very great, and to the public generally they are practically a sealed book.

Another important point to be considered is, that by constant handling for the purpose of making copies, very many of the original specifications are being worn out, and are also in danger of being lost, especially as at present it is necessary that they should be taken from the archives to an outside building for the purpose of copying whatever copies are ordered.

VIII. Office Routine in Patent Cases

1. An application for letters patent, including the first or examination fee, the petition for a grant, the specification and drawing, is received at the Patent Office, either through the mail, by express or by hand.

2. Matter sent by express is received by the machinist, who makes a daily record of the parts received, including fees, which latter are delivered daily to the financial clerk, who accounts for the same. The machinist labels the models, and shelves them until required in the examination of the application, having indorsed on the labels the applicant's name, the subject of invention, and the date of receipt. The drawings and papers are sent by him to the Application room, the several parts received being noted upon the specification for guidance in indorsing the application file wrapper.

3. When the application arrives by mail or is delivered by hand the fee is received by the financial clerk, the model is sent to the machinist, and the drawing and papers are sent, with a memorandum of the fee to the Application room.

4. Here an alphabetical record is made of all applications, showing the name of the applicant, his residence, the title of the invention, name of attorney, date of receipt of petition, affidavit, specification, drawing, model and first fee, and the name of Examiner to whom it is sent. A separate account of fees received is also kept, including first and final fees in applications, fees in design, reissue and trade-mark cases, labels, and in appeals; also, a record of all letters and amendments in applications subsequent to the completion of the same, showing the division to which they are sent.

5. In the Application room the papers in each application receive the official stamp, indicating the day of their receipt, and are placed in a file wrapper, upon which are endorsed the name and residence of the applicant, the subject of invention, the date of receipt of petition, affidavit, specification, drawing and model, and the address of the attorney, if any there be.

6. Meanwhile the drawing is sent to the Drafting division for inspection as to its mechanical execution. The draftsman places upon its back his stamp, and notes upon its face artistic defects, if any exist, and it is returned to the Application room. Defects in the drawing may be corrected at any time before final examination of the application.

7. If, as often occurs, the applications appears on its face to be defective in form, or if any part is wholly wanting, applicant is notified. Upon completion of the application in proper form, the drawing and file are immediately sent for examination as to patentability to the division to which it pertains.

8. In the Examiner's room the application is registered and numbered. The registry entry includes the date of the receipt by the examiner of the application, the name of the applicant, the subject of the invention, the monthly number, and, usually, an attorney's name and the location (shelf) of model. The register number is placed upon the file wrapper, drawing, and model, which latter is delivered to the Examiner by the machinist as soon as required for examination, such delivery being noted on the back of the drawing. and it is disposed upon a shelf, which, by letter or number, is usually noted upon the model, drawing, file, and register.

9. Each application is taken up for examination in the order of its receipt, excepting preferred cases specified in the statute and rules.

10. The examination relates to the sufficiency of description and the patentability of the matter claimed, and requires a critical reading of the specification and a search through descriptions of prior inventions pertaining to the same subject found in the specifications and drawings of domestic and foreign patents, and in other printed publications, or in manuscript digests of the same. Such search is more or less extended according to the complexity of the invention and the antiquity of the art to which it pertains. It frequently requires, in single cases, the inspection of many hundred drawings and extended reading, occupying several days.

11. If upon examination it appears that the matter specified is patentable, and that it is well and sufficiently described, and that it is particularly and distinctly pointed out in the claim, the application is allowed. About fifteen percent of completed applications are, after examination, allowed without objection.

12. If, however, the application is rejected the Commissioner of Patents, by the Examiner, causes the applicant to be informed of the reasons of such rejection, and to be furnished with pertinent information for his guidance as to the further prosecution of the application.

13. Applicant may respond to such rejection by a request for reconsideration with or without amendment of his specification, and he may ask for a reconsideration as often as new references are cited. In most applications there occur one, two, or more rejections.

14. Every official communication by the Examiner in an application, and every communication from the applicant or his attorney, is placed in the file and noted on the back of the file wrapper in proper order and time, and said wrapper exhibits a complete index of the history of the case from the date of its receipt in the Office. Every official action by the Examiner is duly noted in his register adjacent to the original entry of the application, and all official letters are copied by press into a letter book.

15. Written amendments of a specification are entered as follows: Matter to be inserted is inclosed by lines on the amendment, and the place of insertion, as stated by applicant, marked on the body of the specification. Matter to be erased from the specification is inclosed by lines and canceled. Similar reference letters are placed on the amendment and on the specification at the place where it is to be entered, and said letters are indorsed on the back of the amendment. Red ink is used for distinctness. Amendments are made in a large majority of cases, and they frequently are so numerous as to exhaust one or more times the whole alphabet of reference letters in a single alphabet.

16. The correspondence, including rejections and amendments, is continued until the application is put in condition for allowance, or its further prosecution is neglected, or an appeal is taken.

17. If any one of the statutory bars to the grant of a patent (sections 4886 and 4887, Revised Statutes, Office Rules of Practice 1, 4, and 5,) or to the reissue of a patent (section 4916, Rules 64, 66, and 67,) is found to exist upon examination by the Primary Examiner, (section 4993,) and the finding is adhered to upon reexamination, (section 4903, Rules 33,), then an appeal may be taken from such adverse decision to the Board of Examiners-in-Chief (sections 4909 and 482, Rule 42, first paragraph, and 44, first paragraph,) and from an adverse decision of the Board to the Commissioner in person. (Section 4910, Rule 46.)

18. Any party to an interference, against whom an adverse finding of priority has been rendered, may appeal from the judgment of the Examiner of Interferences to the Board of Examiners-in-Chief, and from an adverse decision of the Board to the Commissioner in person. (Sections 4904, 4909 and 4910, Rules 48 and 55.)

19. Every other question or dispute, under any section of the law or rules, raised before any tribunal having cognizance of the subject-matter, i.e., before a Primary Examiner, Examiner of Trade-Marks, or of Interferences, Board of Examiners-in-Chief, or heads of divisions, is appealable, after adverse decision, directly to the Commissioner.

20. The filing of an appeal is recorded in the Application room, and the written reasons of appeal placed in a file wrapper and sent to the proper Examiner, who makes written answer to the same and sends the application and the appeal file containing reasons and answer to the clerk in charge of appeal files. After a final adjudication of the Board of Examiner-in-Chief, or by the Commissioner of Patents, or the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia upon further appeal, the application, appeal papers and decision are returned to the Examiner, who passes the application with or without amendment, or files it among rejected cases, according to the tenor of said decision, and sends the appeal file to the clerk in charge of appeal and interference records.

21. In an appeal to the Commission in an interlocutory matter no separate file is kept, but the reasons and answer are inserted in the application file.

22. When an interference is found to exist between two or more cases the applications are delayed, if practicable without injustice, until each is put in condition for issue in case it receives award of priority of invention. One application at least, claiming the interfering matter, must be in such condition.

23. Upon declaration of preliminary interference by the Examiner the several parties or their attorneys, and, in case of a patent, both the patentee and his attorney of record, and all assignees, are notified of the interference, of the names of the parties to the same and their attorneys, of the residence of both, of the interfering subject-matter, and of the claims in each case embracing such matter.

24. Copies of these are made in the letter book, and also written copies to be sent to the parties, and the proper entries are made in the register and on the file wrappers, and the files and papers sent to the Examiner of Interferences, who, in case the interference appears to him to have been declared in proper form, fixes the time of filing preliminary statements therein, and causes the copies of letters furnished him to be mailed to the appropriate parties.

25. If, however, he finds on inspection that official rules have not been complied with in the preliminary declaration by the Examiner, he returns the same for correction, in which event a new declaration by the Examiner, with letters, copies, &c., is usually necessary. Interference files are prepared by the clerk in charge, as in case of an application.

26. After decision by the Examiner of Interferences as to priority, upon evidence and argument, or after final adjudication upon appeal to the Commissioner, the files and papers are returned to the Examiner, who sends the application of the successful party to issue, unless such party is already a patentee or had neglected to properly amend his application before declaration, or unless an interference with a subsequent application occurs, or, finally, unless evidence, incidentally elicited in the interference proceeding, makes it necessary that the application be rejected for want of patentability of subject-matter.

27. In the latter event the applicant is entitled to a reconsideration and an appeal in the usual course.

28. Interference files are returned to the proper clerk, and the rejected cases are placed among rejected files.

29. Rejected cases that are not prosecuted are retained for two years in the Examiner's room, and forfeited cases that are not renewed are held eighteen months. Both are finally sent to the Draftsman's division.

30. Examined or allowed cases are kept in the Issue division until payment of the final fee, or until forfeiture. In the first case they are sent to the Drafting division and the latter to the Examiner. A record of forfeited cases is kept in the Issue division, and also of allowed cases temporarily returned to the Examiner.

31. In the renewal of forfeited cases the original file and papers are usually retained, the renewal fee and the new date being noted (from Application room) upon the original file wrapper.

32. An application having been found to possess the proper requisites is made ready for issue by the Examiner. A brief of the invention is inserted in the file. The name of the applicant, title of invention, and date of allowance are noted upon the face of the drawing, and also the removal of the model, which latter is sent to the Model room and retained in secrecy until after the grant of the patent. The title is also indorsed upon the file wrapper, and the date of examination, and Examiner's signature placed upon the face of the same.

33. The file and drawing are now sent to the proof-readers in the Issue division, who inspect or edit the specification and drawing, and if material errors are discovered return the same to the Examiner for correction.

34. Immediately after the case is edited it is sent to the Drafting division, where the name of the patentee, the title of the invention, and the name of the Examiner who passed the case are recorded, the date of issue is written upon the file, and the drawing is placed in the "Issue portfolios." The file is then sent to the Issue division.

35. Upon its return to the Issue division it receives the signature of the chief clerk, a circular of allowance is mailed to the proper party, and the file is pigeon-holed to await the payment of the final fee, which, when received, is noted upon the file.

36. In the Issue division the case is dated and numbered, and an entry is made on the Alphabetical Register of Patentees, which register shows a list of all patentees, alphabetically arranged, the title of the invention, the class to which it belongs, the date and number of the patent, and the name and address of the person to whom the patent is to be sent.

37. The case is next entered on the Patent Head Book, and the file is then sent to the Drafting division.

38. The drawing belonging to the case is taken from the Issue portfolios, and the prospective number of the patent is indorsed upon it. The brief is removed from the file, and the number of the patent is in like manner indorsed upon the latter.

39. The file is returned to the Issue division, where it receives an examination to insure that it is in proper condition to go forward, and is delivered by messenger to the Public Printer.

40. The specification is put in type at the Government Printing Office, and the file, with a proof of the specification, is returned to the Issue division, where it is revised and returned to the printer.

41. A "notice of patent," giving the prospective number and date of the patent, is next made out in the same division and mailed to the person entitled to the information.

42. The file is sent to the Drafting division, where it is held until the specification (printed) is received from the Public Printer and the printed drawing from the photolithographer. (See paragraph 56.) The class to which the case belongs is noted on the list of cases previously furnished the draftsman from the Issue division, and the file and "bond copies" of specification and drawing are sent to the file room. (By "bond copies" is meant the copies which are printed on bond paper and bound with the patent head.)

43. There the specification and drawing, with the patent head previously received from the Issue division, are bound, the seal paper pasted on, and the case returned to the Issue division.

44. Here all the papers are finally compared with the Patent Head Book, and it is seen that the different parts agree and are correct.

45. The patent, being ready for the official signatures and seal, is sent to the Commissioner.

46. The patent is signed by the Secretary of the Interior and countersigned by the Commissioner of Patents, and the seal of the Office is affixed thereunto.

47. It is then sent to the File room and placed in an envelope bearing in small letters and figures on the back the number and name corresponding to the number of the patent and name of the inventor.

48. The envelope containing the patent papers. with the file belonging to the case, is again sent over to the Issue division. The patent is addressed to the proper party, and the time the patent is sent out is noted on the Alphabetical Register mentioned in paragraph 36.

49. Previous to the addressing of the patent the file is compared with the register, to see if any change has been made in the address of the person to whom the patent is to be sent, and such change, if any, is properly noted. This step disposes of the patent.

50. The case is now entered on the "Classification Records," kept in the Issue division, the data for this entry being taken from the file, and the file is sent to the File room, where it is retained.

51. If a drawing has been admitted for examination only, and is informal when it reaches the draftsman's desk, (as shown in paragraph 34,) both the file and drawing are here stopped, and the party in interest notified of the fact. When the drawing has been corrected the case is returned to the Examiner, and is started on its course to issue de novo.

52. The patent heads are made up in the Issue division from the Patent Head Book noted in paragraph 37. As soon as the patent head is completed it is sent to the File room for the action indicated in paragraph 43.

53. The necessary lists for the Gazette, the draftsman, machinist, Record room, &c., are made up in the Issue division, the data being obtained from the Patent Head Book.

54. The brief taken from the file (noted in paragraph 38), is sent to the Gazette division, and there arranged for publication in that journal.

55. The drawing obtained from the Drafting division (paragraph 38) has the proper name, title and number printed upon it by the printer in the Patent Office building, and is sent to the photolithographer, who returns it with a proof sheet to the Chief Draftsman. After the proof of the drawing is passed upon and approved, it is sent back to the photolithographer, and the original drawing is held for the action indicated in paragraph 57.

56. The specifications and drawings, when printed by the Public Printer and photolithographer, are delivered to the Specification division, and the bond copies are sent to the Chief Draftsman, who receives them, as noted in paragraph 42.

57. The drawing having been a second time sent to the photolithographer for the production of copies, (library size,) is afterward sent to the Model room for identification of the model, which is then exposed to the public view in its appropriate case, and the drawing returned to the Drafting division to be deposited in its proper portfolio.

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