Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1878

1.  Detailed statement of all moneys received for patents, for 

copies of records or drawings, or from any other source whatever.


  Cash received                 $581,927.00

  Cash refunded                    1,300.00


  Net cash                       589,627.00

  Certificates of deposit         66,113.00


  Total cash and certificates    646,740.00



  Cash received                   46,905.37

  Cash refunded                    1,319.35


  Net cash                        45,586.02

  Certificates of deposit          2,579.05


  Total cash and certificates     48,165.07


Recording assignments:

  Cash received                   20,359.55

  Cash refund                        639.00


  Net cash                        19,720.55

  Certificates of deposit            737.05


  Total cash and certificates     20,457.60


For subscriptions to Official Gazette:

  Cash received                    6,499.28

  Cash refunded                       54.80


  Net cash                         6,444.48

  Certificates of deposit            328.40


  Total cash and certificates      6,772.88


Registration of labels:

  Cash received                    4,002.00

  Cash refunded                      900.00


  Net cash                         3,042.00

  Certificates of deposit            198.00


  Total cash and certificates      3,240.00



Cash received                    659,693.20

Cash refunded                      4,273.15


Net Cash                         655,420.05

Certificates of deposit           69,955.50


Total cash and certificates      725,375.55



Amount expended under the several appropriations, from 

January 1, 1878, to January 1, 1879

Salaries              $380,631.23

Gazette                 35,041.63

Contingent expenses     78,065.04

Copies of drawings      50,801.29

Tracings                 8,105.29

Photolithographing      50,438.55


  Total                593,082.89


      Receipts over expenditures

Total receipts         725,375.55

Total expenditures     593,082.89




II.  Detailed statement of all expenditures for contingent and 

miscellaneous expenses

         Balance of appropriation brought forward      $19,377.65

Jan   5  J.W. Boteler & Bro., sundries         $27.00

      7  H.C. Geisburg, copies, etc.             1.80

      7  Wm. Brakhagen, file straps             42.00

      8  I.H. Schneider, hardware               87.88

      8  Germond Crandell, books                52.50

     10  W.S. Mitchell, carpets, etc.          298.12

     11  John A. Darling, books                 30.00

     12  E.H. King, furniture                  228.12

     14  Chas. J. Gooch, paper fasteners        16.50

     14  Robert Beall, books                    10.40

Feb   5  E.H. Woodruff, file boxes              68.60

Jan  14  Geo. R. Gray, subscription to Union     3.00

     15  Geo. W. Cole, services                  1.50

     18  Henry F. Reh, boxes                     7.50

     18  Aug. Burgdorf, services                23.00

     18  Aug. Burgdorf, repairing furniture     25.00

     18  Chas. Mason, copies                     3.25

     21  Willett & Libbey, lumber               67.84

     24  Wm. H. Dempsey, paper                  56.25

Feb  25  Henry W. Saul, baskets                  8.00

Jan  26  E.H. King, furniture                   80.00

     25  Chas. J. Gooch, fasteners              16.50

     31  Ben Moten, paste                       19.00

Feb   2  W.H.H. Nally, marking books            46.20

      4  Robert Boyd, hardware                  30.52

      4  W.H. & O.H. Morrison, digest           13.00

      4  Rolley Jefferson, carting                .75

      5  E.J. Hayward, washing                  31.00

      6  E.H. King, furniture                  285.00

Jan  --  Pay roll services                   3,478.40

                                             ________    5,058.91


         Balance of appropriation, January 31           14,278.74

Feb   4  Solomons & Chapman, sundries           15.60

      7  W.W. Burdette & Co., towels, etc.      27.44

      7  Chas. Fisher, M. instruments           38.25

      8  American Journal of Microscopy,

           subscription                          2.50

      9  W.F. Lutz, stamp                        9.00

      9  Gustav E. Stechrt, book                 1.00

     11  J.H. Whittaker, services               50.00

     11  D. Lathrop & Co., book                  1.00

     13  John H. Schultz, R.R. Journal          10.00

     14  Macmillon & Co., subscription           5.00

     15  A.H. Stockman, Picturesque World        2.00

     15  Wm. Ballantyne, stationery             17.20

     19  Earl Bill, copies                       2.70

     21  E.H. King, furniture                  376.50

     26  Luther Tucker & Son, subscription       3.00

     28  P.W. Page, services                    50.00

     28  J.H. Whittaker, services               50.00

     28  Ben Moten, paste                       16.50

Mar   1  Robert Beall, books                    10.00

      1  Wm. H. Veerhoff, shades, etc.          52.00

      1  Alexander & Son, paper hanging         13.10

Feb  28  Pay Roll, services                  3,180.60

                                             ________    3,937.98


         Balance of appropriation February 28           10,340.76

Mar   2  E.J. Hayward, washing                  27.42

      6  B. Westermann, books, etc.            151.34

      6  R. Beall, books, etc.                  11.50

      7  E.M. Whittaker & Sons, books, etc.     20.20

      7  Solomons & Chapman, eyelet machine     27.50

      7  John C. Parker, subscription           24.00

      8  E.L. Bugbee, telegrams                  4.32

     11  Germond Crandell, books                48.75

     12  E.H. King, furniture                  123.00

     14  National Republican, subscription       8.00

     15  Norris Peters, drawing paper           30.00

     20  E.W. Woodruff, file holders            65.00

     21  W.B. Moses, furniture                 616.69

     25  H.W. Saul, basket                       2.00

     25  Germond Crandell, books                25.50

     27  Wm. Brakhagen, repairing mail bag       2.50

     27  Leonard Whitney, telegrams              1.25

     27  B.F. Stevens, British patents         426.77

     28  Daniel Kolb, chemicals, etc.           29.35

     30  I.P. Libbey, repairing clocks          50.00

Apr   1  P.W. Page, services                    50.00

      1  Ben Moten, paste                       21.50

      2  E.J. Hayward, washing                  26.00

      2  Great Falls Ice Company, ice          270.00

      2  H.F. Reh, boxes                        21.00

      3  Chas. R. Dodge, subscription            1.00

      2  Willett & Libbey, lumber               55.97

      3  Wm. Yorke AtLee, stamps                32.25

Mar  30  Pay roll, services                  3,481.87

                                             ________    5,804.08



         By additional appropriation                    26,600.00


         Balance of appropriation March 31              31,236.68

Apr   3  Geo. Ryneal, jr., glass, etc.          77.42

      3  H.W. Hamilton, stove pipe, etc.        70.10

      6  James Kelcher, livery                  25.00

      8  B. Westermann, books, etc.            158.12

      8  D. Oliphant, copies                     1.50

      9  Henry F. Reh, boxes                    10.00

     11  F.W. Christern, books                   3.24

     11  Robert Boyd, hardware                  48.90

     12  L.H. Schneider, hardware               44.62

     13  Wash B. Williams, shades, etc.         15.65

     15  John C. Fry, Ex. catalogues            23.00

     18  Adams Express Co., transportation       1.25

     18  J.B. Lippincott & Co., subscription     4.00

     22  James J. De Barry, C "Dater"            9.00

     26  Henry Kimmel, castings, etc.            2.15

     26  Wm. F. Lutz, stamps, etc.               3.25

     27  H. Baumgarten & Bro., repairing stamp   2.75

     27  Western Union Tel. Co., telegrams       1.53

     30  Pay roll services                   6,446.45

     30  P.W. Pages, services                   50.00

     30  Jas. A.K. Moore, paste                 30.50

May   1  Robert Beall, books                     5.00

      1  Robert Beall, books                    36.20

      1  J.H. Whittaker, services               50.00

      2  Wm. Ballantyne & Son, drawing paper    21.50

      2  C.C. Wilson, stamps etc.              112.90

      3  F. Etheridge, bag holder                5.00

                                             _________   7,182.03


         Balance of appropriation May 1                 24,054.65

      7  E.J. Hayward, washing                  32.49

      8  Wm. Woods & Co., subscription           2.85

      4  A.L. Luyster, book                     13.50

     14  E.O. Chapman, books                     3.65

     15  J.H. Williams, services                39.00

     18  N.A. Poole & Co, window cleaners        4.00

     18  Harper Bros., Bazar                     3.20

     27  H.I. Hart, killing insects              8.00

     23  Norris Peters, drawing paper           75.00

     29  Wm. Yorke AtLee, stamps                15.40

     29  John C. Hogan, awnings                437.65

     31  M.E. Mann, encyclopedia                 5.00

     31  James H. Williams, services            42.00

     31  James Lingenfelter, services           35.00

     31  T.F. Wilson, services                  22.00

     31  Germond Crandell, books                23.75

June  1  Geo. Ryneal, oil                         .90

      1  Robert Boyd, hardware                  33.80

      1  James A.K. Moore, paste                16.25

      3  Journal of Chemistry, subscription      3.00

      3  Dana & Silliman, subscription           6.12

      3  Chas. J. Gooch, paper fasteners         5.10

      4  Robert Beall, books                    32.50

      6  E.J. Hayward, washing                  26.33

May  31  Pay roll, services                  8,126.19

                                            _________    9,051.28


         Balance of appropriations, May 31              15,003.37

June  8  Rose Belford Pub. Co., subscription     4.00

      8  E.H. King, case                        40.00

      8  W.T. Lutz, ribbon                       4.00

     15  Levi Curry, boxes                       6.00

     15  Houghton, Osgood & Co. subscription     2.50

     15  Theo. F. Wilson, services              25.00

     15  James H. Williams, services            39.00

     15  James Lingenfelter, services           24.00

     15  Peter Ailer, services                  24.00

     29  James H. Williams, services            36.00

July  3  Great Falls Ice Company, ice          277.20

      1  I.P. Libbey, care of clocks            50.00

      2  James Keleher, horse hire               6.00

June 30  Pay roll, services                 14,387.32

                                            _________   14,933.52



         Bills of Lathrop & Co., $1, Stockman,

         $2, and Brown $3 = $6, (previously

         charged, but not paid)                              6.00



Apr  30  Anna Sterling, services                59.30

Mar  31  Anna Sterling, services                15.80

Apr   3  Western Union Tel. Co., telegrams        .50

June --  Western Union Tel. Co., telegrams        .25

                                             _________      75.85


         Amount of appropriation, July 1, 1878          50,000.00

July  1  E.W. Woodruff, file holders            65.00

      3  Robert Boyd, hardware                  36.56

      3  C.C. Wilson, stamps, etc.             135.05

      3  Aug. Burgdorf, furniture               51.00

      3  Western Union Tel. Co., telegrams       1.80

      8  E.J. Hayward, washing                  32.64

      8  J.S. Topham, harnesses                 40.00

      9  Germond Crandell, books                25.00

      9  A. Hoen & Co., printing                16.80

     10  F. Seypoldt, subscription              10.00

     10  W.W. Burdette & Co., towels, etc.      48.12

     10  Van Nostrand, magazine                  5.00

     10  E.M. Willis, office furniture         135.00

     10  Geo. C. Maynard, telephones           241.75

     10  Library Journal, subscription           6.00

     11  Wm. F. Lutz, stamps                    28.60

     12  Henry Saul, baskets                     6.00

     12  Geo. Stevens, boxes                    18.00

     12  E.H. King, office furniture           530.58

     13  A.E. Denis, gas fitting                 3.00

     15  James H. Williams, services            39.00

     15  J.A.K. Moore, paste                    25.25

     15  Otto De Moll, services                 29.25

     15  James Lingenfelter, services           32.50

     15  B. Westermann, books                   98.10

     15  Journal of Commerce Co., subscription   1.00

     16  S.D. Oliphant, copies, etc.            10.90

     18  Lorenzo Rice, cleaning carpets          2.24

     18  J.W. Boteler & Bro., crockery          94.45

     20  Francis Miller, brushes, oil etc.      16.40

     20  Chas. Fisher, glasses                   5.50

     20  Thos. Ferry, cleaning carpets          44.94

     22  H.L. Pelouze & Son, type               50.15

     25  E.H. King, model cases                 53.50

     27  E. W. Woodruff, file holders           75.80

     27  Aug. Burgdorf, furniture              298.50

     27  A.H. Stockman, encyclopedia             6.50

     27  Levi Curry, case                      140.00

     25  C.C. Wilson, stamps, etc.              58.70

     31  James H. Williams, services            42.00

     31  Germond Crandell, books                87.25

     31  A.S. Adams, services                   28.00

     31  Richard Gallaher, services             75.80

     31  Lucy B. Bailey, services                9.00

     31  Susan Shacklett, services              52.00

     31  R.H.E. Siebert, locks                 100.00

     31  Pay roll, (clerical) services       1,628.48

     31  T.F. Wilson, services                  28.00

     31  Pay roll (laborers) services        2,529.90

     31  H.N. Rothery, services                 42.00

Aug   1  E. Morrison, blanks                   109.35

July 31  Wilmer & Rogers New Co., Review        13.20

                                             _________   7,263.65


         Balance of appropriation July 31               42,736.35

Aug   1  W.H. Veerhoff, shades                  46.00

      1  James Lingenfelter, repairs            17.50

      2  James A.K. Moore, paste                27.00

      3  W.H. Boyd, Directory                    4.00

      7  H.N. Rothery, repairing cases          10.00

      7  E.M. Whittaker & Son, book holders      7.00

      8  Crane & Co., parchment                197.47

      8  Atlantic & Pacific Telegraph Co.

           telegrams                              .64

      8  E.J. Hayward, washing                  17.57

      9  G.N. Rider, books                      16.80

     14  C.C. Maynard, telephone                24.50

     14  E. Morrison, blanks                   370.00

     15  James H. Williams, services            39.00

     15  Wm. H. Newton, services                39.00

     15  H.M. Robinson, services                20.00

     15  Wm. Ballantyne & Son, paper            15.00

     16  Alfred Warwick, labor                  26.00

     16  Levi Curry, repairing cases            28.75

     17  E.H. King, furniture                  300.80

     17  L.H. Schneider, hardware               39.25

     17  James Lingenfelter, services           32.50

     19  Little, Brown & Co., reports           36.50

     20  Solomons & Chapman, sponge rubber       7.50

     20  Solomons & Chapman, arm rests           4.50

     26  W.B. Moses, matting, etc.             707.71

     28  John E. Gorman, file boxes             70.00

     30  Alfred Warwick, repairing furniture    16.00

     30  James Lingenfelter, repairing 

           furniture                            35.00

     31  Jos. Rakeman, painting, etc.          185.50

     31  G.D. Lawson, services                   8.00

     31  James H. Williams, services            42.00

     31  R.J. Gallaher, services                75.00

     31  A.E. Dennis, bronzing, etc.            16.00

     31  W.H. Veerhoff, shades                  10.00

Sept  2  Robert Boyd, hardware                  31.39

Aug  31  Clerical pay roll, services         1,257.60

     31  Laborers' pay roll, services        3,776.10

                                             _________   6,528.58


         Balance of appropriation, August 31            36,207.77

Sept  3  James A.K. Moore, paste                30.50

      4  W.H. Ross, sawdust                     16.50

      4  Willett & Libbey, lumber              151.63

      6  J.B. Lippincott, book                   5.86

      7  G.D. Lawson, services                  24.00

      7  C.C. Wilson, dies, etc.               131.15

      9  E.J. Hayward, washing                  16.20

     10  Western Union Tel. Co., telegrams       2.62

     11  B.F. Stevens, spec's, sub's, etc.     487.16

     14  J.H. Williams, services                46.00

     13  Wm. Minster, label plates              15.00

     14  James Lingenfelter, services           30.00

     14  J.G. Weaver, file case                 25.00

     14  G.D. Lawson, services                  24.00

     14  E.H. King, furniture                  291.40

     16  Little, Brown & Co., book               6.00

     18  Norris Peters, photolithographs       120.00

     19  Norris Peters, photolithographs       158.00

     19  B.F. Stevens, (A) periodicals, etc }  100.54

     19  B.F. Stevens, (B) periodicals, etc }

     20  Aug. Burgdorf, portfolios, etc.       122.50

     20  A.E. Denis, bronzing, etc.             22.00

     23  A.E. Denis, services                   16.00

     23  Robert Boyd, hardware                  24.88

     27  John C. Parker, pens                    5.00

     28  James H. Williams, services            39.00

     28  G.D. Lawson, services                  52.00

     28  Levi Curry, drawers, etc.              96.25

     30  I.P. Libbey, repairing clocks          50.00

     30  Wm. Wood & Co., subscriptions           1.50

     30  W. White, freight                       4.09

     30  Germond Crandell, books                48.70

     30  James Lingenfelter, services           32.50

     30  E.H. King, repairing furniture        144.00

     30  R.J. Gallaher, services                73.40

     30  C.C. Wilson, dies and stamps          189.80

     30  W.D. Webb, services                    60.00

Oct   1  James Keleher, carriage hire            3.00

      1  Geo. C. Maynard, repairing telephone   15.00

      1  J.A.K. Moore, paste                    28.00

      1  Geo. W. Knox, freight                   2.06

      1  D. Ballauf, furniture                  14.00

      2  H. Baumgarten & Co., repairing stamp    2.75

Sept 30  R. Hoe & Co., printing press          217.60

Oct   2  Wm. Yorke AtLee, stamps                12.50

      2  Francis Miller, printers' stock         5.60

      1  Francis Miller, printers' stock, etc.  39.75

      1  Daniel Kolb, drugs                     19.45

      2  Great Falls Ice Company, ice          202.92

      2  W.H. Veerhoff, curtains                11.00

Sept 30  Pay roll (clerical) services        1,187.21

     30  Pay roll, (laborers) services       2,663.80

                                            _________    7,087.21


         Balance of appropriation, September 30         29,120.56

Nov   1  E.W. Woodruff, file holders            65.00

      2  C.C. Wilson, dies and stamps           38.40

      3  Jas. A.K. Moore, paste                 24.50

      5  Geo. Ryneal, jr., printers' stock      11.16

      5  Levi Curry, floor in printers' room    65.00

      6  Henry F. Reh, boxes                    30.00

      6  Wm. Brakhagen, mail bag                 1.25

      8  William Cushing, N.A. Review            5.00

      7  Thos. G. Newman & Son, subscription    10.00

      9  McGee & Williams, cleaning carpets     33.90

     13  Tubman, paper hanging                   5.25

     14  E.H. King, case                        25.00

     15  E.F. Brooks, gas burner                 9.00

     15  Pay roll (laborers discharged) 

           services                            870.82

     15  Pay roll (clerical discharge,) 

           services                            584.66

     15  James H. Williams, services            39.00

     15  James Lingenfelter, services           32.50

     18  W.B. Williams, cloth, etc.             24.90

     20  H. Baumgarten & Bro, dating stamp      20.00

     23  James S. Oden, services                55.50

     23  H.F. Reh, boxes                         2.50

     25  Industrial Pub. Co., subscription       1.00

     27  James Lingenfelter, services           32.50

     27  McGee & Willard, cleaning carpets       6.45

     29  Levi Curry, floor in printers' room    48.00

     30  James H. Williams, services            39.00

     30  Richard J. Gallaher, services          73.40

     30  J.H. Adrians, jr., services            73.40

     30  L.H. Flynn, file wrappers              18.00

     30  Daniel Williams, services              22.50

     30  E.D. Webb, services                    65.00

     30  Pay roll services                   1,002.00

                                            _________    3,293.75


         Balance of appropriation November 30           20,224.04

Dec   2  Fannie Frere, services                 24.45

      2  J.A.K. Moore, paste                    25.50

      3  Robert Boyd, hardware                  33.20

      3  C.C. Wilson, stamps                    31.95

      4  B.F. Stevens, books, etc.              51.89

      6  Wm. Ballantyne & Sons, books etc.       6.85

      6  E.J. Hayward, washing                  15.63

      9  James Talty, repairing                  3.50

      9  R.G. Hutchinson, strap files          159.95

     13  Aug. Burgdorf, cases                   35.00

     14  James Lingenfelter, services           30.00

     14  James H. Williams, services            36.00

     20  Willett & Libbey, lumber              134.92

     23  Susan Bird, paste                      22.50

     23  James Lingenfelter, services           35.00

     23  Richard J. Gallaher, services          75.80

     24  E.D. Webb, services                    47.50

     26  Tenney & Reese, stamp                   8.00

     26  A.H. Stockman, encyclopedia             6.00

     27  Boyd's Directory Co., directory        25.00

     27  E.W. Woodruff, file holders           130.00

     28  James H. Williams, services            42.00

     30  I.P. Libbey, repairing clocks          50.00

     30  Crane & Co., parchment                96.65

     30  E.H. King, furniture                  113.50

     31  Wash. B. Williams, furniture, etc.     29.93

     31  E.D. Webb, services                    17.50

     31  L.H. Flynn, file wrappers              63.81

     31  Pay roll, services                  1,014.00

      5  D.W. Lapham, pen                        3.00

                                            _________    2,359.43


         Balance of appropriation December 31, 1878     17,864.61

III.  Summary of the business of the Office

Applications for patents, including designs              20,260

Applications for reissue of patents                         638

Patents issued, including designs                        12,935

Patents reissued                                            509

Patents extended                                     [no entry]

Caveats filed                                             2,755

Patents expired during the year, exclusive of designs     2,617

Patents withheld for non-payment of final fee               832

Applications for registration of trade marks              1,577

Trade marks registered                                    1,455

Applications for registration of labels                     700

Labels registered                                           492

IV.  Number of patents issued to the several States and 

Territories, with the ratio of population to each patent granted;

also, the number of patents issued to subjects or citizens of

foreign governments

States and Territories       Patents   One to 

                             and       every


Alabama                            39   25,563

Arizona Territory                   2    4,829

Arkansas                           45   10,766

California                        320    1,750

Colorado                           35    1,138

Connecticut                       529    1,015

Dakota Territory                    5    2,833

Delaware                           39    3,209

District of Columbia              146      968

Florida                             3   65,682

Georgia                           105    1,127

Idaho Territory                     2    7,499

Illinois                          998    2,547

Indiana                           345    4,842

Iowa                              325    3,676

Kansas                             63    5,784

Kentucky                          145    9,110

Louisiana                          76    9,564

Maine                             140    4,477

Maryland                          183    4,267

Massachusetts                   1,199    1,216

Michigan                          390    3,036

Minnesota                         129    3,408

Mississippi                        38   21,787

Missouri                          315    5,499

Montana Territory                   3    3,865

Nebraska                           50    2,459

Nevada                             36    1,180

New Hampshire                      92    3,459

New Jersey                        490    1,870

New Mexico Territory                3   30,624

New York                        2,599    1,685

North Carolina                     53   20,214

Ohio                            1,070    2,490

Oregon                             35    2,568

Pennsylvania                    1,296    2,718

Rhode Island                      190    1,143

South Carolina                     28   25,200

Tennessee                          98   12,842

Texas                             130    6,219

Utah Territory                      7   12,392

Vermont                           109    3,032

Virginia                          113   10,848

Washington Territory               13    1,842

West Virginia                      58    7,620

Wisconsin                         251    4,218

Wyoming Territory                   8    1,138

United States Army                  4       --

United States Navy                  1       --

    Total                      12,354      ---

    Of the patents, including designs, there were granted to the 

Citizens of the United States                 12,354

Subjects of Great Britain, including Canada      336

Subjects of France                                60

Subjects of Germany                               98

Subjects of other foreign governments             87


    Total                                     12,935

V.  Work of the Trade Mark Division

              Cases for Action

Cases on hand at the beginning of year            52

Trade marks received during the year           1,604

Labels received during the year                  711

Amended cases                                  1,779


    Total cases for action                     4,146

              Cases Acted Upon 

Whole number of trade marks and labels 

  passed to issue during the year              1,990

Whole number of actions other than issues 

  during the year                              2,105

Total actions on applications during the year  4,095

New cases on hand                                  8

Old cases on hand                                 43

Answers to miscellaneous letters of inquiry       39

Briefs in appeal cases                            39

Interferences declared                            18

Trade marks registered                            12


    Total actions during the year              4,328

This exhibit shows an increase over the preceding year, both in the number of applications received for action and in the number of actions made. In 1877 there were 1,377 trade mark applications and 627 label applications filed in the Office, the fees deposited therewith amounting to $38,187. There were 833 more applications received for action during the year just closed than during the previous year, 227 of which were new and 556 old or amended cases; and there were 834 more actions made on applications during the last year than during the preceding year.

The receipts of this division for the year 1878 are as follows:

Amount received from 1,567 trade mark 

  applications, upon which full fees have 

  been paid                                  $39,175

Amount derived from 37 trade mark 

  applications, upon each of which first 

  fees have been paid                            370


    Total trade mark fees                     39,545

Amount derived from 711 label applications     4,266


    Total receipts for the year               43,811

This table shows an increase of $5,624 over the receipts for the year 1877.

It is estimated that $10,399 will cover the expenditures incurred in carrying on the work of the division for the past year, as shown by the following table:

Salary of Examiner                                   2,400

Salary of Second Assistant Examiner                  1,600

Salary of first class clerk                          1,200

Salary of clerk of division                            900

Salary of additional clerk                             480

For printing trade mark specifications  (estimated)  2,619

For salaries of clerical help in the preparation of 

  trade mark certificates etc., (estimated)          1,200


    Total                                           10,399

    Recent changes have reduced the force of the division.  It 

now consists of --

One Examiner  (annual salary)                        2,400

One Second Assistant Examiner (annual salary)        1,600

One clerk (annual salary)                              900

One additional clerk (annual salary)                   600


    Total                                            5,500

In 1878 there were issued 1,455 trade mark certificates and 492 label certificates, making a total issue of 1,947 certificates.

VI. Foreign Patents in possession of the Office

Copies of patents issued by other governments have been received in exchange for those of the United States, as follows:

English Patents

By an arrangement made about a year ago, copies of English patents are received from the Great Seal Patent Office through the Government mail, by the courtesy of the State Department, immediately upon publication. The office is now in possession of complete sets of the old law series, 1617-1852, No. 1 to 14,359, text and plates, plates on muslin, bound separately, 816 volumes; series of 1852, 1852-1875, same form, 1,750 volumes; and series 1876, 1876 to date, text and plates bound together, 8vo., 120 volumes; a total of 2,676 volumes.

Indexes to the above, alphabetical, chronological, and subject matter, to the year 1876, have been received, and also complete sets of abridgements to the year 1866.

German Patents

Complete sets from July 1, 1877, to date, text and plates, 30 volumes.

French Patents

First series, 1781-1844, comprising 12,543 specifications, 93 volumes text, 46 volumes plates. Second series, 1844-1863, comprising about 6,500 specifications, 87 volumes text, 44 volumes plates. Third series, 1871-1875, including specifications from No. 91,631 to 106,000, 14 volumes text, 14 volumes plates. These are all that have been printed. The patents for the years 1864 to 1870, inclusive, numbered 60,201 to 91,630, have not been published by the French Government.

Austrian Patents

Series, 1821-1847, 6 volumes, 3 volumes plates

Belgian Patents

Series, 1854-1877, 24 volumes text, 6 volumes plates

Canadian Patents

1854-1855, 2 volumes.

Italian, Swedish, and Norwegian patents, imperfect sets, as far as published. The same of patents issued by New Zealand and Victoria.

VII. Unprinted Specifications

There were 10,061 patents issued from 1790 to 1836, inclusive. The records of nearly all of these were destroyed by the fire of 1836. Two thousand eight hundred and forty-five were restored, having been returned to the Office by the patentees to be again recorded.

From 1836 to 1866, inclusive, 56,163 patents were issued, including reissues and designs. The printing of patents dates from November 20, 1866. About 1,000 of the patents issued in 1866 were printed. There thus remain about 58,000 recorded patents unprinted. All the original drawings accompanying these patents have been reproduced by the photolithographic process.

It is difficult to estimate exactly the cost of printing these patents; but, on the basis of the present cost of printing specifications, the old specifications being assumed to be of the same average length as those now printed, it is estimated that the cost of printing the 58,000 specifications referred to will amount to $230,000. This estimate is based on the average cost per page at present rates of printing one hundred specifications.

The completion during the past year of the reproduction of all the old drawings, as above mentioned, has considerably reduced the demand for manuscript copies of their accompanying specifications. Still the receipts of the Office from this one source continue to be about $5,000 per year.

It now requires, on an average, the constant employment of eight copyists to make and compare the copies daily ordered of these specifications. Were these printed the salaries of six copyists and two comparers, amounting to the annual sum of $7,400, would be saved to the Office.

Furthermore, a much greater amount would be received annually from the sales of the printed copies at the present rate of selling specifications. The demand for such printed specifications, not only for single copies, but from persons and libraries desirous of completing their sets of patents generally, or in particular lines of invention, would be extensive. Thus the saving to the Office and the receipts from sales would in a number of years equal the entire outlay for printing. But the cost or saving of money in this matter is of small consequence compared with the advantage to be afforded this Office and the public, in the examination of applications for patents, and the dissemination of knowledge of the state of the art in every class of inventions. Confined now to single manuscript copies of 58,000 patents, the labor of their examination, constantly necessary by this Office, is very great, and to the public generally they are practically a sealed book.

Another important point to be considered is, that by constant handling for the purpose of making copies, very many of the original specifications are being worn out, and are also in danger of being lost, especially as at present it is necessary that they should be taken from the archives to an outside building for the purpose of copying whatever copies are ordered.

VIII. Office Routine in Patent Cases

1. An application for letters patent, including the first or examination fee, the petition for a grant, the specification and drawing, is received at the Patent Office, either through the mail, by express or by hand.

2. Matter sent by express is received by the machinist, who makes a daily record of the parts received, including fees, which latter are delivered daily to the financial clerk, who accounts for the same. The machinist labels the models, and shelves them until required in the examination of the application, having indorsed on the labels the applicant's name, the subject of invention, and the date of receipt. The drawings and papers are sent by him to the Application room, the several parts received being noted upon the specification for guidance in indorsing the application file wrapper.

3. When the application arrives by mail or is delivered by hand the fee is received by the financial clerk, the model is sent to the machinist, and the drawing and papers are sent, with a memorandum of the fee to the Application room.

4. Here an alphabetical record is made of all applications, showing the name of the applicant, his residence, the title of the invention, name of attorney, date of receipt of petition, affidavit, specification, drawing, model and first fee, and the name of Examiner to whom it is sent. A separate account of fees received is also kept, including first and final fees in applications, fees in design, reissue and trade-mark cases, labels, and in appeals; also, a record of all letters and amendments in applications subsequent to the completion of the same, showing the division to which they are sent.

5. In the Application room the papers in each application receive the official stamp, indicating the day of their receipt, and are placed in a file wrapper, upon which are endorsed the name and residence of the applicant, the subject of invention, the date of receipt of petition, affidavit, specification, drawing and model, and the address of the attorney, if any there be.

6. Meanwhile the drawing is sent to the Drafting division for inspection as to its mechanical execution. The draftsman places upon its back his stamp, and notes upon its face artistic defects, if any exist, and it is returned to the Application room. Defects in the drawing may be corrected at any time before final examination of the application.

7. If, as often occurs, the applications appears on its face to be defective in form, or if any part is wholly wanting, applicant is notified. Upon completion of the application in proper form, the drawing and file are immediately sent for examination as to patentability to the division to which it pertains.

8. In the Examiner's room the application is registered and numbered. The registry entry includes the date of the receipt by the examiner of the application, the name of the applicant, the subject of the invention, the monthly number, and, usually, an attorney's name and the location (shelf) of model. The register number is placed upon the file wrapper, drawing, and model, which latter is delivered to the Examiner by the machinist as soon as required for examination, such delivery being noted on the back of the drawing. and it is disposed upon a shelf, which, by letter or number, is usually noted upon the model, drawing, file, and register.

9. Each application is taken up for examination in the order of its receipt, excepting preferred cases specified in the statute and rules.

10. The examination relates to the sufficiency of description and the patentability of the matter claimed, and requires a critical reading of the specification and a search through descriptions of prior inventions pertaining to the same subject found in the specifications and drawings of domestic and foreign patents, and in other printed publications, or in manuscript digests of the same. Such search is more or less extended according to the complexity of the invention and the antiquity of the art to which it pertains. It frequently requires, in single cases, the inspection of many hundred drawings and extended reading, occupying several days.

11. If upon examination it appears that the matter specified is patentable, and that it is well and sufficiently described, and that it is particularly and distinctly pointed out in the claim, the application is allowed. About fifteen percent of completed applications are, after examination, allowed without objection.

12. If, however, the application is rejected the Commissioner of Patents, by the Examiner, causes the applicant to be informed of the reasons of such rejection, and to be furnished with pertinent information for his guidance as to the further prosecution of the application.

13. Applicant may respond to such rejection by a request for reconsideration with or without amendment of his specification, and he may ask for a reconsideration as often as new references are cited. In most applications there occur one, two, or more rejections.

14. Every official communication by the Examiner in an application, and every communication from the applicant or his attorney, is placed in the file and noted on the back of the file wrapper in proper order and time, and said wrapper exhibits a complete index of the history of the case from the date of its receipt in the Office. Every official action by the Examiner is duly noted in his register adjacent to the original entry of the application, and all official letters are copied by press into a letter book.

15. Written amendments of a specification are entered as follows: Matter to be inserted is inclosed by lines on the amendment, and the place of insertion, as stated by applicant, marked on the body of the specification. Matter to be erased from the specification is inclosed by lines and canceled. Similar reference letters are placed on the amendment and on the specification at the place where it is to be entered, and said letters are indorsed on the back of the amendment. Red ink is used for distinctness. Amendments are made in a large majority of cases, and they frequently are so numerous as to exhaust one or more times the whole alphabet of reference letters in a single alphabet.

16. The correspondence, including rejections and amendments, is continued until the application is put in condition for allowance, or its further prosecution is neglected, or an appeal is taken.

17. If any one of the statutory bars to the grant of a patent (sections 4886 and 4887, Revised Statutes, Office Rules of Practice 1, 4, and 5,) or to the reissue of a patent (section 4916, Rules 64, 66, and 67,) is found to exist upon examination by the Primary Examiner, (section 4993,) and the finding is adhered to upon reexamination, (section 4903, Rules 33,), then an appeal may be taken from such adverse decision to the Board of Examiners-in-Chief (sections 4909 and 482, Rule 42, first paragraph, and 44, first paragraph,) and from an adverse decision of the Board to the Commissioner in person. (Section 4910, Rule 46.)

18. Any party to an interference, against whom an adverse finding of priority has been rendered, may appeal from the judgment of the Examiner of Interferences to the Board of Examiners-in-Chief, and from an adverse decision of the Board to the Commissioner in person. (Sections 4904, 4909 and 4910, Rules 48 and 55.)

19. Every other question or dispute, under any section of the law or rules, raised before any tribunal having cognizance of the subject-matter, i.e., before a Primary Examiner, Examiner of Trade-Marks, or of Interferences, Board of Examiners-in-Chief, or heads of divisions, is appealable, after adverse decision, directly to the Commissioner.

20. The filing of an appeal is recorded in the Application room, and the written reasons of appeal placed in a file wrapper and sent to the proper Examiner, who makes written answer to the same and sends the application and the appeal file containing reasons and answer to the clerk in charge of appeal files. After a final adjudication of the Board of Examiner-in-Chief, or by the Commissioner of Patents, or the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia upon further appeal, the application, appeal papers and decision are returned to the Examiner, who passes the application with or without amendment, or files it among rejected cases, according to the tenor of said decision, and sends the appeal file to the clerk in charge of appeal and interference records.

21. In an appeal to the Commission in an interlocutory matter no separate file is kept, but the reasons and answer are inserted in the application file.

22. When an interference is found to exist between two or more cases the applications are delayed, if practicable without injustice, until each is put in condition for issue in case it receives award of priority of invention. One application at least, claiming the interfering matter, must be in such condition.

23. Upon declaration of preliminary interference by the Examiner the several parties or their attorneys, and, in case of a patent, both the patentee and his attorney of record, and all assignees, are notified of the interference, of the names of the parties to the same and their attorneys, of the residence of both, of the interfering subject-matter, and of the claims in each case embracing such matter.

24. Copies of these are made in the letter book, and also written copies to be sent to the parties, and the proper entries are made in the register and on the file wrappers, and the files and papers sent to the Examiner of Interferences, who, in case the interference appears to him to have been declared in proper form, fixes the time of filing preliminary statements therein, and causes the copies of letters furnished him to be mailed to the appropriate parties.

25. If, however, he finds on inspection that official rules have not been complied with in the preliminary declaration by the Examiner, he returns the same for correction, in which event a new declaration by the Examiner, with letters, copies, &c., is usually necessary. Interference files are prepared by the clerk in charge, as in case of an application.

26. After decision by the Examiner of Interferences as to priority, upon evidence and argument, or after final adjudication upon appeal to the Commissioner, the files and papers are returned to the Examiner, who sends the application of the successful party to issue, unless such party is already a patentee or had neglected to properly amend his application before declaration, or unless an interference with a subsequent application occurs, or, finally, unless evidence, incidentally elicited in the interference proceeding, makes it necessary that the application be rejected for want of patentability of subject-matter.

27. In the latter event the applicant is entitled to a reconsideration and an appeal in the usual course.

28. Interference files are returned to the proper clerk, and the rejected cases are placed among rejected files.

29. Rejected cases that are not prosecuted are retained for two years in the Examiner's room, and forfeited cases that are not renewed are held eighteen months. Both are finally sent to the Draftsman's division.

30. Examined or allowed cases are kept in the Issue division until payment of the final fee, or until forfeiture. In the first case they are sent to the Drafting division and the latter to the Examiner. A record of forfeited cases is kept in the Issue division, and also of allowed cases temporarily returned to the Examiner.

31. In the renewal of forfeited cases the original file and papers are usually retained, the renewal fee and the new date being noted (from Application room) upon the original file wrapper.

32. An application having been found to possess the proper requisites is made ready for issue by the Examiner. A brief of the invention is inserted in the file. The name of the applicant, title of invention, and date of allowance are noted upon the face of the drawing, and also the removal of the model, which latter is sent to the Model room and retained in secrecy until after the grant of the patent. The title is also indorsed upon the file wrapper, and the date of examination, and Examiner's signature placed upon the face of the same.

33. The file and drawing are now sent to the proof-readers in the Issue division, who inspect or edit the specification and drawing, and if material errors are discovered return the same to the Examiner for correction.

34. Immediately after the case is edited it is sent to the Drafting division, where the name of the patentee, the title of the invention, and the name of the Examiner who passed the case are recorded, the date of issue is written upon the file, and the drawing is placed in the "Issue portfolios." The file is then sent to the Issue division.

35. Upon its return to the Issue division it receives the signature of the chief clerk, a circular of allowance is mailed to the proper party, and the file is pigeon-holed to await the payment of the final fee, which, when received, is noted upon the file.

36. In the Issue division the case is dated and numbered, and an entry is made on the Alphabetical Register of Patentees, which register shows a list of all patentees, alphabetically arranged, the title of the invention, the class to which it belongs, the date and number of the patent, and the name and address of the person to whom the patent is to be sent.

37. The case is next entered on the Patent Head Book, and the file is then sent to the Drafting division.

38. The drawing belonging to the case is taken from the Issue portfolios, and the prospective number of the patent is indorsed upon it. The brief is removed from the file, and the number of the patent is in like manner indorsed upon the latter.

39. The file is returned to the Issue division, where it receives an examination to insure that it is in proper condition to go forward, and is delivered by messenger to the Public Printer.

40. The specification is put in type at the Government Printing Office, and the file, with a proof of the specification, is returned to the Issue division, where it is revised and returned to the printer.

41. A "notice of patent," giving the prospective number and date of the patent, is next made out in the same division and mailed to the person entitled to the information.

42. The file is sent to the Drafting division, where it is held until the specification (printed) is received from the Public Printer and the printed drawing from the photolithographer. (See paragraph 56.) The class to which the case belongs is noted on the list of cases previously furnished the draftsman from the Issue division, and the file and "bond copies" of specification and drawing are sent to the file room. (By "bond copies" is meant the copies which are printed on bond paper and bound with the patent head.)

43. There the specification and drawing, with the patent head previously received from the Issue division, are bound, the seal paper pasted on, and the case returned to the Issue division.

44. Here all the papers are finally compared with the Patent Head Book, and it is seen that the different parts agree and are correct.

45. The patent, being ready for the official signatures and seal, is sent to the Commissioner.

46. The patent is signed by the Secretary of the Interior and countersigned by the Commissioner of Patents, and the seal of the Office is affixed thereunto.

47. It is then sent to the File room and placed in an envelope bearing in small letters and figures on the back the number and name corresponding to the number of the patent and name of the inventor.

48. The envelope containing the patent papers. with the file belonging to the case, is again sent over to the Issue division. The patent is addressed to the proper party, and the time the patent is sent out is noted on the Alphabetical Register mentioned in paragraph 36.

49. Previous to the addressing of the patent the file is compared with the register, to see if any change has been made in the address of the person to whom the patent is to be sent, and such change, if any, is properly noted. This step disposes of the patent.

50. The case is now entered on the "Classification Records," kept in the Issue division, the data for this entry being taken from the file, and the file is sent to the File room, where it is retained.

51. If a drawing has been admitted for examination only, and is informal when it reaches the draftsman's desk, (as shown in paragraph 34,) both the file and drawing are here stopped, and the party in interest notified of the fact. When the drawing has been corrected the case is returned to the Examiner, and is started on its course to issue de novo.

52. The patent heads are made up in the Issue division from the Patent Head Book noted in paragraph 37. As soon as the patent head is completed it is sent to the File room for the action indicated in paragraph 43.

53. The necessary lists for the Gazette, the draftsman, machinist, Record room, &c., are made up in the Issue division, the data being obtained from the Patent Head Book.

54. The brief taken from the file (noted in paragraph 38), is sent to the Gazette division, and there arranged for publication in that journal.

55. The drawing obtained from the Drafting division (paragraph 38) has the proper name, title and number printed upon it by the printer in the Patent Office building, and is sent to the photolithographer, who returns it with a proof sheet to the Chief Draftsman. After the proof of the drawing is passed upon and approved, it is sent back to the photolithographer, and the original drawing is held for the action indicated in paragraph 57.

56. The specifications and drawings, when printed by the Public Printer and photolithographer, are delivered to the Specification division, and the bond copies are sent to the Chief Draftsman, who receives them, as noted in paragraph 42.

57. The drawing having been a second time sent to the photolithographer for the production of copies, (library size,) is afterward sent to the Model room for identification of the model, which is then exposed to the public view in its appropriate case, and the drawing returned to the Drafting division to be deposited in its proper portfolio.


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